History of the Division

By Robert L. Rowell, University of Massachusetts , Amherst

The early history centered around the National Colloid symposium since the first Symposium was held in 1923 at the University of Wisconsin, three years before establishment of the Division in 1926.  No meetings were held in 1933 and during the war years 1943-45.  Two papers summarize the first forty years (1, 2).  These papers were reprinted in Vol. I (3) of the five-volume series of books that chronicled the 50th National Colloid Symposium that heralded the 50th anniversary of the Division in 1976 and was the first Symposium to bear the new name: International Conference on Colloids and Surfaces.  Volume I covered the lead areas: Forces at Interfaces, Catalysis, Aerosols, Solid surfaces, Water at Interfaces, Rheology of Disperse Systems, Stability and Instability, Membranes, Surface Thermodynamics and Liquid Crystals.  Volumes II - V contained contributed papers on similar topics as well as Emulsions, Surfactants, Adsorption, Wetting, Surface Tension, Hydrosols, Biocolloids, Polymers, Monolayers and general papers thus defining the field at the opening of the current update which focuses on the period 1976-2001.  An earlier report in the ACS Centennial volume (4) summarizes the history from another point of view.    

We first highlight the officers who have chaired the Division in the 25-year period, Table 1.  It is their leadership that has overseen, directed and fostered the growth and development of the Division to meet the needs of the growth and development of the discipline during the period.
   
One person must not fall through the cracks of history. Gabor A. Somorjai who chaired the Division in 1975 and introduced the idea of continuing symposia which set the tone of programming at the two annual ACS meetings and has persisted to this day. The current list of Continuing Symposia in Table 2 reflects the many research thrusts of our discipline. Comparison of the topics in Table 2 with the topics of the 50th Anniversary Meeting listed above reveals the changes and development of the field.

The scientific contributions of our Division and discipline are best summarized in the publications of those who have been honored with awards.  The oldest such award is the ACS Award in Colloid or Surface Chemistry, which was established in 1952 and supported until 1993 by The Kendall Company.  Sponsorship was assumed by Procter & Gamble Company effective with the 1994 presentation.  Since this history has not been summarized before, a complete list of awardees is given in Table 3.  We are fortunate to have two publications (5, 6) giving some of the Award addresses.
   
In 1991 a new ACS Award was established: the Arthur W. Adamson Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Surface Chemistry sponsored by Occidental Petroleum Corporation.  A nominee must have demonstrated extensive contributions to the advancement of surface chemistry.  Activities recognized by the award may include such fields as teaching, writing, research and administration.  Award recipients are listed in Table 4.

The Division has also recognized innovation and excellence in graduate research in colloid and surface chemistry.  The oldest award, the Victor K. La Mer Award for an outstanding Ph.D. thesis accepted by a U.S. or Canadian university was first given in 1970.  A complete list of awardees is given in Table 5.
   
For a number of years, the Division administered a graduate fellowship in colloid and surface chemistry that was sponsored by Procter & Gamble Co.  The fellowship award was made to the recipient's academic department to be used entirely to support  the direct costs of the recipient's PhD research. A list of the awards is given in Table 6.
   
In 1990 the Division established a new award with the support of the Henkel Corporation. The Henkel Corporation Research Fellowship in Colloid and Surface Chemistry consists of an award of $20,000 each year for 2 years, to be used entirely for the Fellow's stipend scientific travel and other direct research costs during the final 2 years of doctoral thesis research at an accredited university within the United States .  Award winners are listed in Table 7.

In 1985, a new ACS journal was born, Langmuir, the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids.  The story of its birth (from a survey of some thousand academics, industrial and government scientists with the enthusiastic endorsement of the Executive Committee of the ACS Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry and carried out by following Society procedures) is related in some detail in the initial issue (7).
   
Each year at the Fall meeting of the Society, the Division selects two well-known scientists, each to present a lecture having some common theme.  The one lecture emphasizes the "dry" or solid-vacuum or solid-gas interface, and the other, the "wet" or liquid interface, including disperse systems (7).  The early papers in the series were published in Langmuir.  A list of the Langmuir Lecturers is given in Table 8.
   
The history of the Division is also generated in active symposia in several secretariats, which meet jointly with other Divisions.  A list of the current secretariats is given in Table 9.
   
Finally, some perspective should be given to the overall technical programming of the Division.  Above we have mentioned the Continuing Symposia, listed in Table 2, that are held at the Annual Spring and Fall ACS Meetings.  But what has happened to the Colloid Symposium (now known as the Colloid and Surface Science Symposium) which was historically a single-session meeting devoted to a single topic surrounding the research area of one distinguished overseas guest plenary lecturer?  The 1972 Symposium, the 46th, held at the University of Massachusetts was the last single-session meeting.  By the time of the 50th meeting, which was also the 50th anniversary of the Division, parallel sessions were well established. At the recent 74th Colloid and Surface Science Symposium held at Lehigh, there were 8 parallel symposia in addition to general papers and a poster session.  Needless to say, the task of organizing such a large and complex event is a special contribution, which must be recognized by listing the institutions and chairs who have carried on the traditions.  This important update is included in Table 10.
   
The breadth and depth of colloid and surface chemistry are highlighted in the attached tables.  The achievements and contributions are too numerous and varied to be listed here but can be appreciated by reading the works of those cited in the tables and the references given as an introduction to the wide world of colloid and surface chemistry at the close of the twentieth century.

REFERENCES
1. "Remarks of J. H. Mathews at the Opening of the Fortieth National Colloid Symposium" J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1966, 22, 409-411.
2. "Early History of the National Colloid Symposium", J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1966, 22, 412-418.
3. "Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. I. Plenary and Invited Lectures", M. Kerker, A. C. Zettlemoyer and R. L. Rowell, Eds. Academic Press, N.Y. (1977).
4. "A Century of Chemistry" Produced for the ACS Centennial in 1976.
5. "Twenty Years of Colloid and Surface Chemistry - - The Kendall award Addresses", K. H. Mysels, C. M. Samour and J. H. Holister, Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1973).
6. "Eighteen Years of Colloid and Surface Chemistry - - The Kendall Award Addresses", T. Fort and K. J. Mysels, Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington , D.C. (1991).
7. "A Journal is Born" by A. Adamson and "Why Langmuir" by K. J. Mysels, Langmuir 1985, 1, 1-3.

Table 1.  Division Chairs.

1976 W. H. Wade   1990 B.J. Kinzig
1977 T. Fort, Jr.   1991 E. L. Kugler
1978 W. K. Hall   1992 D.W. Osborne
1979 J.P. Kratohvil   1993 C. T. Campbell
1980 J.T.Yates, Jr.   1994 R. A. Mackay
1981 J. A. Mann   1995 J. B. Benzinger
1982 G. L. Haller   1996 A. Morfesis
1983 A. I. Medalia   1997 N. E. Turner
1984 R. R. Rye   1998 J. Texter
1985 D. W. Goodman   1999 B. K. Warren
1986 R. L. Rowell   2000 A. P. Gast
1987 A. T. Bell   2001 A. T. Hubbard
1988  R. Rajagopalen   2002 D. T. Wasan
1989 J. L. Gland      
         

Table 2.  Continuing Symposia

  A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
Molecular Processes at Solid Surfaces
Catalysis
Surfactants and Association Colloids
Surface Chemistry in Biological and Medical Applications
Colloidal Particles
Electrochemical Surface Science
Foams, Gels and Self-Assembled Films
Tribology: Friction, Wear and Lubrication
Colloid and Surface Chemistry of Advanced Materials
Interfacial chemistry and the Environment
Colloids in Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals and Foods
Polymer Interfaces
Interfaces in Nanotechnology
Computer Simulations in Surface and Colloid Chemistry
New Techniques in Surface and Colloid Chemistry
Protein Interfaces
Nanoparticles and Porous Solids 

 

 

 Table 3.  ACS Award in Colloid or Surface Chemistry

Recipients sponsored by the Kendall Company

 

1954 Harry N. Holmes   1974 W. Keith Hall
1955 John W. Williams   1975 Robert Gomer
1956 Victor K. La Mer   1976 Robert J. Good
1957 Peter J.W. Debye   1977 Michael Boudart
1958 Paul H. Emmett   1978 Harold A. Scheraga
1959 Floyd E. Bartell   1979 Arthur W. Adamson
1960 John D. Ferry   1980 Howard Reiss
1961 Stephen Brunauer   1981 Gabor A. Somorjai
1962 George Schatchard   1982 Gert Erlich
1963 William A. Zisman   1983 Janos H. Fendler
1964 Karol J. Mysels   1984 Brian E. Conway
1965 George W. Halsey, Jr.   1985 Stig E. Friberg
1966 Robert S. Hansen   1986 Eli Ruckenstein
1967 Stanley G. Mason   1987 John T. Yates, Jr.
1968 Albert C. Zettlemoyer   1988 Howard Brenner
1969 Terrell L. Hill   1989 Arthur T. Hubbard
1970 Jerome Vinograd   1990 J. Michael White
1971 Milton Kerker   1991 W. Henry Weinberg
1972 Egon Matijevic   1992 David C. Whitten
1973 Robert L. Burwell, Jr.   1993 D. Wayne Goodman

Recipients sponsored by the Procter & Gamble Company

1994 J. Kerry Thomas   1999 Nicholas J. Turro
1995 Thomas Engel   2000 Darsh T. Wasan
1996 T. G. M. van de Ven   2001 Charles T. Campbell
1997 Harden M. McConnell   2002  
1998 Eric W. Kaler      

 

 

Table 4.  Arthur W. Adamson Award for Distinguished Service
in The Advancement of Surface Chemistry sponsored by
Occidental Petroleum Corporation

1993 David M. Hercules   1998 Kenneth B. Eisenthal
1994 Gabor A. Somorjai   1999 John T. Yates, Jr.
1995 W. Henry Weinberg   2000 Alvin W. Czanderna
1996 Robert Gomer   2001 John M. White
1997 Robert W. Madix   2002  

 

 

Table 5. Victor K. La Mer Award
for an outstanding Ph.D. thesis from a U.S. or Canadian University

1970 Charles W. Querfeld Department of Physics Clarkson College of Technology
1971 Edward McCafferty Department of Chemistry Lehigh University
1972 Donald E. Brooks Department of Biochemistry University of Oregon
1973 W. Henry Weinberg Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Berkeley
1974 Stephen L. Brenner Department of Chemistry Indiana University
1975 Michele Flicker Department of Chemistry Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1976 Felix T. Hong Department of Biophysics Rockefeller University
1977 Hung Dah Shih Department of Materials Science SUNY, Stony Brook
1978 Frederick A Putnam Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University
1979 Eduardo D. Glandt Department of Chemical Engineering University of Pennsylvania
1980 Wilson Ho Department of Physics University of Pennsylvania
1981 Michael Deeba Department of Chemistry University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
1982 Mark A. Bartau Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University
1983 David G. Weklie Department of Materials Science University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
1984 Jeffry Harwell Department of Petroleum Engineering University of Texas, Austin
1985 Syed Qutubbuddin Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University
1986 Manoj K. Chaudhury Department of Chemical Engineering SUNY, Buffalo
1987 Peter S. Kirlin Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware
1988 James P. Ebel Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University
1989 John M. Vohs Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware
1990 Andrea K. Myers-Beaghton Department of Chemical Engineering Princeton University
1991 Antonios G. Mikos Department of Chemical Engineering Purdue University
1992 Andrew D. Johnson Department of Chemistry Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1993 Robert D. Tilton Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University
1994 Paul E. Laibinis Department of Chemistry Harvard University
1995 Vicki L. Colvin Department of Chemistry University of California Berkeley
1996 Frank M. Zimmerman Department of Physics Cornell University
1997 John Levins Department of Chemical Engineering University of Pennsylvania
1998 Darrell Velegol Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University
1999 Younan Xia Department of Chemistry Harvard University
2000 Yunfeng Lu Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Mexico
2001 Garth J. Simpson Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Colorado

 

 

Table 6. Procter & Gamble Graduate Fellowship in Colloid and Surface Chemistry

1980 Bruce E. Koel Department of Chemistry University of Texas, Austin
1981 Eric Stuve Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University
1985 James P. Ebel Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University
1986 David M. Hrubowchak Department of Chemistry Pennsylvania State University
1987 Brial Moore Department of Chemistry UCLA
1988 Philip K. Vinson Department of Chemical Engineering University of Minnesota
1989 Kurt W. Kolasinski Department of Chemistry Stanford University
1990 Mark W. Grinstaff Department of Chemistry University of Illinois
1991 Michael A Meyer Department of Chemical Engineering University of Pennsylvania
1992 Carl L. Weisbecker Department of Chemistry Harvard University

Table 7.  Henkel Fellowships


 
1990   Maria Laso University of California Berkeley
1991   John Levins University of Pennsylvania
1992   Rick Maechling Stanford University
1993   Brian Herr Northwestern University
1994   Alan Esker University of Wisconsin
1995   Ali Firouzi University of California/Santa Barbara
1996   Christine Keating Penn State University
1997   James Chamberlain University of Arizona
1998   Michael Bevan Carnegie-Mellon University
1999   Juanita Wickham University of California Berkeley

 

 

Table 8.  Langmuir Lecturers

1979   John Yates  University of Pittsburgh
    Janos Fendler Clarkson University
1980   Michel Boudart Stanford University
    Milton Kerker  Clarkson University
1981   Art Adamson University of Southern California
    Robert Madix Stanford University
1982   Ernest Yeager Case Western Reserve University
    W. Keith Hall  University of Pittsburgh
1983   Paul Becher Paul Becher Associates
    Paul Weisz Mobil Research & Development, Princeton
1984   J.A. Mann Case Western University
    Mark Cardillo  AT&T Bell Laboratories
1985   Egon Matijevic Clarkson University
    R.L. Burwell, Jr. Northwestern University
1986   Gerhard Ertl  Firitz-Haber Inst. de MPG, Berlin
    Benjamin Widom Cornell University
1987   D. Fennel Evans University of Minnesota
    K. Klier  Lehigh University
1988   J. Lunsford Texas A&M University
    Ron Ottewill University of Bristol
1989   George M. Whitesides Harvard University
    Sylvia T. Ceyer Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1990   George L. Gaines, Jr. Rensselaer Polytech Institute
    Gabor A. Somorjai University of California, Berkeley
1991   Stig. Friberg Clarkson University
    D.Wayne Goodman Texas A&M University
1992   Alexis T. Bell  University of California, Berkeley
    Dennis Chapman  University of London
1993   Jacob N. Israelachvili  University of California, Santa Barbara
    J. Michael White University of Texas
1994   Eli Ruckenstein  SUNY, Buffalo
    Benjamin Chu SUNY, Stony Brook
1995   Alice P. Gast Stanford University
    Cynthia M. Friend Harvard University
1996   Gerhard J. Fleer Wageningen University
    Graham J. Hutchings University of Wales
1997   Matthew V. Tirrell  University of Minnesota
    William A. Goddard  California Institute of Technology
1998   Bjorn Lindman University of Lund
    Srinivasan Manne University of Arizona
1999   Hyuk Yu  University of Wisconsin
    Mark E. Davis  California Institute of Technology
2000   Marie-Paul Pileni  University Pierre et Marie Curie
    Hermann Gaub Ludwig-Maximilians University  Munich
2001   Malgorzota Borowko Marie Curie Sklodowska University, Lublin
    James A. Schwarz Syracuse University

 

 

Table 9.  Colloid and Surface Chemistry Secretariats

  Macromolecular Secretariat
  Catalysis and Surface Science Secretariat
  Materials Secretariat
  Biotechnology Secretariat 

 

 

Table 10. Chairs of the Colloid and Surface Science Symposium

1977 51 SUNY Buffalo (Grand Island) Robert J. Good
1978 52 University of Tennessee/ORNL  E. L. Fuller, Jr.,ORNL
1979 53 University of Missouri-Rolla Stig E. Friberg
1980 54 Lehigh University  Henry Leidheiser, Jr.
1981 55  Case-Western Reserve University J. Adin Mann, Jr.
1982 56 Virginia Tech  James P.  Wightman
1983 57 University of Toronto  A.  W. Neumann
1984 58 Carnegie-Mellon University G. D. Parfitt
1985 59  Clarkson University E. Matijevic
1986 60 Georgia Tech  M. J. Matteson
1987  61 University of Michigan Erdogan Gulari
1988  62  Penn State  R. Nagarajan
1989 63  University of Washington  John C. Berg
1990 64 Lehigh University Mohammed S. El-Aasser
1991 65 University of Oklahoma John Scamehorn
1992 66 West Virginia University  Duane H. Smith
      Martin Ferer
1993  67 University of Toronto M. L. Hair
      A. W. Neumann
1994 68  Stanford University Alice P. Gast
1995 69 University of Utah  Joseph D. Andrade
      Karin D. Caldwell
      Terry A. Ring
1996 70  Clarkson University Stig E. Friberg
 1997  71 University of Delaware  Eric W. Kaler
      Ralph D. Nelson, Jr.
1998 72 Penn State  Ramanathan Nagarajan
      W. A. Steele
      R. Hogg
1999 73  M.I.T. Paul E. Labinis
      T. Alan Hatton
2000 74 Lehigh University Mohammed S. El-Aasser
      Maria M. Santore
2001 75 Carnegie Mellon University Robert D. Tilton
      Stephen Garoff
2002 76 University of Michigan Ramanathan Nagarajan